Индекс мотивации предпринимательской активности и институциональная среда

  • Ольга Рафаиловна Верховская Высшая школа менеджмента, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199004, Санкт-Петербург, Волховский пер., 3
  • Екатерина Александровна Александрова Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Российская Федерация, 190008, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Союза Печатников, 16 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7067-5087

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются факторы институциональной среды, оказывающие влияние на индекс мотивации, рассчитываемый как соотношение доли высокопритязательных пред принимателей к доле вынужденных. Предприниматели с добровольной и вынужденной мотивацией демонстрируют разное поведение при создании бизнеса. Те из них, которые рассматривают в качестве мотивов своей деятельности увеличение доходов и желание независимости (высокопритязательные предприниматели), готовы к большим инвестициям в создание бизнеса, чаще создают новые продукты и используют новые технологии, таким образом, обеспечивая больший вклад в развитие экономики. Выдвинут ряд гипотез, протестированных на данных проекта «Глобальный мониторинг предпринимательства» (GEM) за период с 2007 по 2016 г. Результаты подтверждают наличие положительной связи между уровнем экономического развития и индексом мотивации, увеличение доли высокопритязательных предпринимателей характерно для высокоразвитых стран. Несмотря на необходимость развития всех видов предпринимательства, о которых идет речь в программах поддержки малого и среднего бизнеса, стимулирование высокопритязательных предпринимателей может обеспечивать вклад в рост ВВП за счет создания новых, в том числе инновационных, продуктов и технологий, а также увеличения масштабов бизнеса. Нашли подтверждение гипотезы о том, что защита прав собственности, регулирование коррупции и качество образования положительно влияют на индекс мотивации. Уверенность в том, что доходы и собственность защищены, увеличивает вероятность выбора в пользу добровольного предпринимательства. Защита прав влияет не столько на общий уровень предпринимательской активности, сколько на изменение ее «качества». Восприятие общества как коррумпированного сокращает и уровень вынужденного предпринимательства, однако ограничение коррупции в большей степени стимулирует высокопритязательных предпринимателей, чем вынужденных.

Ключевые слова:

индекс мотивации, предпринимательская активность, добровольные предприниматели,, вынужденные предприниматели, высокопритязательные предприниматели, институциональная среда

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Литература

Литература на русском языке

Образцова О. И. GEM как источник альтернативной статистики для сравнительного межстранового анализа предпринимательской активности // Теория предпринимательства в России. По материалам Глобального мониторинга предпринимательства / под ред. Т. А. Алимовой, О. И. Образцовой, А. Ю. Чепуренко. М.: ГУ—ВШЭ, 2010. С. 18–62.

Чепуренко А. Ю. Раннее предпринимательство в России: промежуточные результаты GEM // Мир России. Социология. Этнология. 2008. № 17 (2).

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Levie J., Autio E., Acs Z., Hart M. Global entrepreneurship and institutions: an introduction // Small business economics.2014. No. 42 (3). P. 437–444.

Malchow-Møller N., Markusen J., Skaksen J. Labour market institutions, learning and self-employment // Small Business Economics 2010.No. 35 (1). P. 35–52.

McMullen J., Bagby D., Palich L. Economic freedom and the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial action // Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2008. No. 32 (5). P. 875–895.

Muñoz P., Kibler E. Institutional complexity and social entrepreneurship: A fuzzy-set approach // Journal of Business Research. 2016. No. 69 (4). P. 1314–1318.

North D. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

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Rodrik D. Institutions, integration, and geography: In search of the deep determinants of economic growth // Search of Prosperity: Analytic Country Studies on Growth. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2003.

Romer P. Economic growth The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Liberty Fund. 1990. Endogenous Technological Change // Journal of Political Economy 2007. No. 98 (5 part 2). P. S71–S102.

Scott W. Institutions and organizations. Foundations for organizational science. London: A Sage Publication Series, 1995.

Shane S., Venkataraman S. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research // Academy of management review. 2000. No. 25 (1). P. 217–226.

Singer S. Policy environment for promoting entrepreneurship in Croatia. Strengthening entrepreneurship innovation & economic development at the local level in Croatia — An Active Review. 2007. Zagreb, OECD, USAID, LEED program 11–41.

Solow R. M. A contribution to the theory of economic growth // The quarterly journal of economics. 1956. № 70 (1). P. 65–94.

Stenholm P., Acs Z., Wuebker R. Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity // Journal of Business Venturing. 2013. No. 28 (1). P. 176–193.

Swan T. Economic growth and capital accumulation // Economic record. 1956. No. 32 (2). P. 334–361.

Tipu S. A. A. Comparing the behaviour of opportunity and necessity driven entrepreneurs // International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business. 2016. No. 27 (1). P. 84–107.

Urbano D., Alvarez C. Institutional dimensions and entrepreneurial activity: an international study // Small Business Economics. 2014. No. 42 (4). P. 703–716.

Valdez M., Richardson J. Institutional determinants of macro‐level entrepreneurship // Entrepreneurship theory and practice. 2013. No. 37 (5). P. 1149–1175.

Van der Zwan P., Thurik R., Verheul I., Hessels J. Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs // Eurasian Business Review. 2016. No. 6 (3). P. 273–295.

Van Stel A., Carree M., Thurik R. The effect of entrepreneurial activity on national economic growth// Small business economics. 2005. No. 24 (3). P. 311–321.

Volkmann C., Audretsch D. Entrepreneurship Education at Universities. Springer, 2017.

Wennekers S., Van Wennekers A., Thurik R., Reynolds P. Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development // Small business economics. 2005. No. 24 (3). P. 293–309.

Whitley R. Developing innovative competences: the role of institutional frameworks. Industrial and Corporate Change. 2002. No. 11(3). P. 497–528.

Wong P., Ho Y., Autio E. Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth: Evidence from GEM data // Small business economics. 2005. No. 24 (3). P. 335–350.

Xavier S., Kelley D., Kew J., Herrington M., Vorderwuelbecke A. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Executive Report. US, MA: Babson College, Babson Park; Chile, Santiago: Universidad del Desarrollo; Malaysia, Kuala Lampur, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak; UK, London: London Business School, 2013.

Zali M., Faghih N., Ghotbi S., Rajaie S. The effect of necessity and opportunity driven entrepreneurship on business growth // International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 2013. No. 7 (2). P. 100–108.


Translation of references in Russian into English

Acemoglu D. A simple model of inefficient institutions. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 2006, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 515–546.

Acs Z., Audretsch D., Braunerhjelm P., Carlsson B. Growth and entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 2012, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 289–300.

Ács, Z., Autio E., Szerb L. National systems of entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications. Research Policy, 2014, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 476–494.

Aidis R., Estrin S., Mickiewicz T. Institutions and entrepreneurship development in Russia: A comparative perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 2008, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 656–672.

Alvarez C., Urbano D. Environmental factors and entrepreneurial activity in Latin America. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 2011, no. 48, pp. 31–45.

Anokhin S., Schulze W. Entrepreneurship, innovation, and corruption. Journal of business venturing, 2009, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 465–476.

Anokhin S., Wincent J., Autio E. Operationalizing opportunities in entrepreneurship research: use of data envelopment analysis. Small Business Economics, 2011, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 39–57.

Aparicio S., Urbano D., Audretsch D. Institutional factors, opportunity entrepreneurship and economic growth: Panel data evidence. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2016, no. 102, pp. 45–61.

Audretsch D., Keilbach M. Resolving the knowledge paradox: Knowledge-spillover entrepreneurship and economic growth. Research Policy, 2008, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1697–1705.

Autio E., Acs Z. Intellectual property protection and the formation of entrepreneurial growth aspirations. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2010, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 234–251.

Baker T., Gedajlovic E., Lubatkin M. A framework for comparing entrepreneurship processes across nations. Journal of International Business Studies, 2005, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 492–504.

Baron R., Ensley M. Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns: Evidence from comparisons of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Management science, 2006, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1331–1344.

Baumol W. Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Business Venturing, 1996, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 3–22.

Beach W., O’Driscoll G. Explaining the Factors of the Index of Economic Freedom, in 2003 Index of Freedom.

Bjørnskov C., Foss N. How strategic entrepreneurship and the institutional context drive economic growth. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 2013, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 50–69.

Block J., Wagner M. Opportunity Recognition and Exploitation by Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs: Empirical Evidence from Earning Equations. Academy of Management Proceedings, vol. 2007, no. 1, pp. 1–6.

Bowen H., De Clercq D. Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Journal of International Business Studies, 2008, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 747–767.

Bruton G., Ahlstrom D., Li H. Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 2010, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 421–440.

Busenitz L., Gomez C., Spencer J. Country institutional profiles: Unlocking entrepreneurial phenomena. Academy of Management journal, 2000, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 994–1003.

Chepurenko A. Entrepreneurial Activity in Post-Soсialist Countries: Methodology and Research Limitations. Foresight and STI Governance, 2017, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 11–24.

Chepurenko A. Yu. Rannee predprinimatel’stvo v Rossii: promezhutochnye rezul’taty GEM [Early Entrepreneurship in Russia: GEM Interim Results]. Mir Rossii. Sotsiologiia. Etnologiia [World of Russia. Sociology. Ethnology], 2008, vol. 17, no. 2. (In Russian)

Dheer R. Cross-national differences in entrepreneurial activity: role of culture and institutional factors. Small Business Economics, 2017, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 813–842.

Douhan R., Henrekson M. Entrepreneurship and second-best institutions: going beyond Baumol’s typology. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 2010, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 629–643.

Dreher A., Gassebner M. Greasing the wheels? The impact of regulations and corruption on firm entry. Public Choice, 2013, vol. 155, no. 3–4, pp. 413–432.

Eckhardt J., Shane S. 2003. Opportunities and entrepreneurship. Journal of management, 2003, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 333–349.

Estrin S., Korosteleva J., Mickiewicz T. Which institutions encourage entrepreneurial growth aspirations? Journal of business venturing, 2013, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 564–580.

Fuentelsaz L., González C., Maícas J., Montero J. 2015. How different formal institutions affect opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 2015, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 246–258.

Gnyawali D., Fogel D. Environments for entrepreneurship development: key dimensions and research implications. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 1994, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 43–62.

Grilo I., Thurik R. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (IJEE) , 2005, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 143–168.

Hall P., Soskice D. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Industrial Relations Journal, 2001, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 185–190.

Heckelman J. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth: a Short-Run Causal Investigation. Journal of Applied Economics, 2000, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 71–91.

Hessels J., Van Gelderen M., Thurik R. Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers. Small Business Economics, 2008, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 323–339.

Jiménez A., Palmero-Cámara C., González-Santos M., González-Bernal J., Jiménez-Eguizábal J. The impact of educational levels on formal and informal entrepreneurship. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 2015, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 204–212.

Kirzner I. Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of economic Literature, 1997, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 60–85.

Kostova T. Country institutional profiles: Concept and measurement. Academy of management Proceedings, 1997, no. 1, pp. 180–184.

Letinić S., Štavlić K. Entrepreneurial activity-indicator of regional development in Croatia. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 2011, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 536–539.

Levie J., Autio E. Entrepreneurial framework conditions and national-level entrepreneurial activity: Seven-year panel study. Third Global Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 2007, October, p. 53.

Levie J., Autio E. Regulatory burden, rule of law, and entry of strategic entrepreneurs: An international panel study. Journal of Management Studies, 2011, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1392–1419.

Levie J., Autio E., Acs Z., Hart M. Global entrepreneurship and institutions: an introduction. Small business economics, 2014, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 437–444.

Malchow-Møller N., Markusen J., Skaksen J. Labour market institutions, learning and self-employment. Small Business Economics, 2010, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 35–52.

McMullen J., Bagby D., Palich L. Economic freedom and the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 2008, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 875–895.

Muñoz P., Kibler E. Institutional complexity and social entrepreneurship: A fuzzy-set approach. Journal of Business Research, 2016, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 1314–1318.

North D. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Obraztsova O., Poliakova T., Popovskaya E. The Choice of Funding Sources for Start-Ups in a Transitional Economy: The Ability to Predict in a National Context. Foresight and STI Governance, 2017, vol. 11, no. 3.

Obraztsova O.I. GEM kak istochnik al’ternativnoi statistiki dlia sravnitel’nogo mezhstranovogo analiza predprinimatel’skoi aktivnosti [GEM as a source of alternative statistics for comparative cross-country analysis of entrepreneurial activity]. Teoriia predprinimatel’stva v Rossii. Po materialam Global’nogo monitoring predprinimatel’stva [Entrepreneurship Theory in Russia. Based on the Global Monitoring of Entrepreneurship]. Eds T. A. Alimova, O. I. Obraztsovoy, A. Yu. Chepurenko. Moscow, State University — Higher School of Economics, 2010, pp. 18–62. (In Russian)

Reynolds P., Camp S., Bygrave W., Autio E., Hay M. Global entrepreneurship monitor gem 2001 summary report. London Business School and Babson College. London, 2002.

Reynolds P., Hay M., Camp S. Global entrepreneurship monitor. 1999.

Rodrik D. Institutions, integration, and geography: In search of the deep determinants of economic growth. Search of Prosperity: Analytic Country Studies on Growth. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2003.

Romer P. Economic growth The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Liberty Fund, 1990. Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 2007, vol. 98, no. 5, part 2, pp. S71–S102.

Scott W. Institutions and organizations. Foundations for organizational science. London, A Sage Publication Series, 1995. 255 p.

Shane S., Venkataraman S. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 2000, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 217–226.

Singer S. Policy environment for promoting entrepreneurship in Croatia. Strengthening entrepreneurship innovation & economic development at the local level in Croatia. An Active Review, 2007, Zagreb, OECD, USAID, LEED program, pp. 11–41.

Solow R. M. A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The quarterly journal of economics, 1956, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 65–94.

Stenholm P., Acs Z., Wuebker R. Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 2013, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 176–193.

Swan T. Economic growth and capital accumulation. Economic record, 1956, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 334–361.

Tipu S. A. A. Comparing the behaviour of opportunity and necessity driven entrepreneurs. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2016, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 84–107.

Urbano D., Alvarez C. Institutional dimensions and entrepreneurial activity: an international study. Small business economics, 2014, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 703–716.

Valdez M., Richardson J. Institutional determinants of macro‐level entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 2013, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1149–1175.

Van der Zwan P., Thurik R., Verheul I., Hessels J. Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs. Eurasian Business Review, 2016, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 273–295.

Van Stel A., Carree M., Thurik R. The effect of entrepreneurial activity on national economic growth. Small business economics, 2005, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 311–321.

Volkmann C., Audretsch D. Entrepreneurship Education at Universities. Springer, 2017. 655 p.

Wennekers S., Van Wennekers A., Thurik R., Reynolds P. Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development. Small business economics, 2005, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 293–309.

Whitley R. Developing innovative competences: the role of institutional frameworks. Industrial and Corporate Change, 2002, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 497–528.

Wong P., Ho Y., Autio E. Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth: Evidence from GEM data. Small business economics, 2005, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 335–350.

Xavier S., Kelley D., Kew J., Herrington M., Vorderwuelbecke A. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Executive Report. US, MA: Babson College, Babson Park, Chile, Santiago: Universidad del Desarrollo, Malaysia, Kuala Lampur, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, UK, London: London Business School, 2013.

Zali M., Faghih N., Ghotbi S., Rajaie S. The effect of necessity and opportunity driven entrepreneurship on business growth. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 2013, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 100–108.

Опубликован
2019-02-16
Как цитировать
Верховская, О. Р., & Александрова, Е. А. (2019). Индекс мотивации предпринимательской активности и институциональная среда. Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Экономика, 34(4), 511 - 533. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu05.2018.402
Раздел
Экономическая теория в историческом развитии