State-aid programs of BRICS countries: Сase of transport equipment trade

  • Александра Геннадьевна Коваль Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8648-0911
  • Анастасия Борисовна Могучева Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская наб., 7–9

Аннотация

Программы государственной помощи (субсидии) являются достаточно распространенной формой поддержки национальных компаний в развитых и развивающихся странах. Хотя эти меры строго регулируются правилами ВТО, государства БРИКС активно их используют, несмотря на заявления о стремлениях к либерализации и торговому сотрудничеству. Целью статьи является определение отличительных характеристик данных программ в странах БРИКС в сфере торговли транспортным оборудованием. Методы исследования базируются на  межстрановом сравнительном анализе и изучении отдельных кейсов. В первой части статьи авторы выделяют противоречия, существующие в теоретических подходах к анализу программ государственной помощи. Вторая часть посвящена описанию особенностей применения нетарифных мер в странах БРИКС и роли государственной помощи. И в завершение анализа представлены конкретные кейсы в области торговли транспортным оборудованием. Авторы пришли к выводу, что результативность субсидий в транспортном секторе не столь очевидна, поскольку на динамику импорта и экспорта соответствующей продукции влияют весьма разнообразные внешние факторы. Тем не менее применение программ государственной помощи приводит к созданию более благоприятных условий для национальных производителей. Данные программы в большинстве случаев не соответствуют правилам ВТО, что приводит к дисбалансу в международной торговле и несет в себе угрозу инициирования споров. В странах БРИКС необходимо усилить мониторинг данных программ и обратить внимание на возможность использования прежде всего горизонтальных, нежели вертикальных субсидий.

Ключевые слова:

государственная помощь, субсидия, нетарифные меры, БРИКС, протекционизм, внешняя торговля, торговля транспортным оборудованием

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Литература

Литература на русском языке

Поставки Су-35, Су-30 и SSJ100 впервые принесли ОАК прибыль в 1 млрд. руб. // Российская газета. 03.04.2017. Available at: https://rg.ru/2017/04/03/postavki-su-35-su-30-i-ssj100-vpervye-prinesli-oak-pribyl-v-1-mlrd-rub.html (accessed: 15.02.2018).

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Коваль А.Г., Трофименко О.Ю. Роль БРИКС во внешнеторговой политике России, Международная экономика, 2017, № 10, с. 20–29.

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Translation of references in Russian into English

Abbott P. C., Paarlberg P. L., Sharples J. A. Targeted agricultural export subsidies and social welfare. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1987, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 23–32.

Automotive Investment Scheme Guidelines. The Department of Trade and Industry: Trade and Industry of South Africa. August 2017. Available at: https://www.thedti.gov.za/DownloadFileAction?id=1181&filename=AIS.pdf (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Automotive Sector. Achievements Report. Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion & Department of Heavy Industries. 26.11.2016. URL: http://www.makeinindia.com/documents/10281/114126/Automotive+Sector+-+Achievement+Report+ %281 %29.pdf (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Baldwin R., Evenett S. The collapse of global trade, murky protectionism, and the crisis: Recommendations for the G20. London: CEPR, 2009. 112 p.

Barone B., Bendini R. Protectionism in the G20. Brussels: European Union, 2015. 41 p.

Biller D. Goldman Warns of Brazil Depression After GDP Plunges Again. Bloomberg. Business. 01.12. 2015. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-12-01/brazil-gdp-falls-more-than-analysts-expected-as-demand-withers (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Brazil — Certain Measures Concerning Taxation and Charges. WTO Panel Report, WT/DS472/R, WT/DS497/R, 30.08.2017. Available at: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/472_497r_e.pdf (accessed: 15.02.2018).

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Mello A. M., Marx R., Mota F. G. A preliminary analysis of Inovar Auto impact on the Brazilian Automotive Industry R & D activity. Revista de Administracao e Inovacao, 2016, no. 13, pp. 22–28.

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Naude W. A., Szirmai A., Haraguchi N. Structural Change and Industrial Development in the BRICS. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015. 492 p.

Pascoal E. T., Delamaro M. C., Ibusuki U., Tsukada O., Roch H. M. The new Brazilian automotive policy and its impact on the competitiveness of multinational automobile and auto parts manufacturers. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 2017, vol. 17, iss. 3, pp. 225–247.

Pereira L., Plonski G. A. Shedding light on technological development in Brazil. Technovation, 2009, vol. 29, iss. 6–7, pp. 451–464.

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Rubini L. The Definition of Subsidy and State Aid: WTO and EC Law in Comparative Perspective. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009. 448 p.

Sambo S., Orr E., Godboy D. Brazilian Real Drops to Record Low Against U.S. Dollar. Bloomberg. 2015. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-22/brazil-s-currency-tumbles-to-record-onpessimism-over-budget (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Schwartz G., Clements B. Government Subsidies. Journal of Economic Surveys, 1999, no. 13(2), pp. 119–147.

Sciskalova M., Muenster M. Definition and Characteristics of State Aid. Procedia. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2014, no. 110, pp. 223–230.

Shah A. Economic Rationale, Subsidy and Cost Sharing in Watershed projects. Economic and Political Weekly, 2005, vol. 40, no. 26, pp. 2663–2671.

Sinha A., Mondal S., Boone T., Ganeshan R. Analysis of issues controlling the feasibility of automobile remanufacturing business in India.
International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 2017, vol. 26, iss. 4, pp. 459–475.

Sivasundaram Anushan S. C., Anbarasu P., Naveen A. J. A., Pandi K. S. Model of Make in India Possibilities: An Indian Operations Dream. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2016, vol. 9, iss. 27, pp. 1–10.

Stein L. SA motor incentives insufficient. Guardian, 11.10.2013. Available at: https://mg.co.za/article/2013-10-11-00-sa-motor-incentives-insufficient (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Sturgeon T., Chagas L. L., Barnes J. Inovar Auto: Evaluating Brazil’s Automative Industrial Policy to Meet the Challenges of Global Value Chains. Background paper, World Bank Group, 2017. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/28947/121667-REVISED-Brazil-Public-Expenditure-Review-Brazil-in-Automotive-Globa.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Trade and public policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century. World Trade Organization (WTO). World Trade Report. Geneva, WTO, 2012. 247 p.

Transport Equipment in Asia Pacific, Strategic Briefing. Euromonitor. January 2018. Available at: http://www.euromonitor.com/transport-equipment-in-asia-pacific/report (accessed: 15.02.2018).

Zahariadis N. State Subsidies in the Global Economy. New York, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008. 193 p.

Опубликован
2018-11-29
Как цитировать
Коваль, А. Г., & Могучева, А. Б. (2018). State-aid programs of BRICS countries: Сase of transport equipment trade. Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета. Экономика, 34(3), 415 - 438. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu05.2018.304
Раздел
Мировая экономика и международные финансы